Cost savings can be realised by using resources more efficiently or increasing productivity. This results in lower consumption of energy, water or other resources. As resources are getting scarcer, this can lead to competitive advantage.
Closing the loop
A second way of resource efficiency is the reduction of waste materials, reusing waste for new products and / or winning back raw materials from waste. Closing the loop improves resource efficiency and can be a driving force for new products or services.
Third: equipment can be used longer by maintenance and upgrading. Although for instance computers and other office supplies are outdated pretty quickly, there are possibilities to keep them in good working order for a longer period of time.